Posted tagged ‘Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy’

How to make Iowa’s tax system more unfair

February 5, 2013
David Osterberg

David Osterberg

How odd that a new proposal to make Iowa’s tax system more regressive and unfair comes out just when new evidence shows it already is unfair. HF3 would make the Iowa income tax rate flat where it needs to reflect ability to pay. Since higher income people pay more in income tax, and because they are expected to pay a greater percentage as their income rises, moving to a flat or flatter income tax is a reward to them. It does not help low- and moderate-income people.

As shown in the recent “Who Pays?” report by the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP), the poorest pay the highest portion of their income in taxes. (See graph.) The sales tax is much steeper as a share of income from low-income Iowans than it is from high-income Iowans, and the property tax is marginally more expensive to low-income people as a share of income than it is to those with high incomes. The income tax is the only progressive element of Iowa’s state and local tax system.

graph of Who Pays Iowa taxesTo flatten the only progressive feature of Iowa’s tax system would make the overall tax system more regressive. That would be the inevitable effect of HF3.

The problem with Iowa’s tax system is not that it’s too progressive. In fact, it is regressive — taking a larger share of the income of people at low incomes and middle incomes than of people at the top. HF3 would compound this.

Posted by David Osterberg, Executive Director

Better understanding the 47 percent

October 1, 2012
Heather Gibney, Research Associate

Heather Gibney

The current political environment has set off a firestorm of confusion about who does and who does not pay taxes in America — and unfair criticism of many working families and others.

It’s true that 47 percent of Americans pay no federal income taxes, but they do pay taxes. In fact, almost two-thirds of the 47 percent are low-income, working households who are paying payroll taxes to help finance Social Security and Medicare, and many pay federal excise taxes on things like gasoline, alcohol and cigarettes.[1] These households are also paying a large percentage of their income in state and local sales and property taxes.

Many working Americans are exempt from the income tax because of features Congress added to the tax code — with overwhelming bipartisan support, in an effort to enable people to care for themselves and their children while encouraging them to work. Some of these features include the Earned Income Tax Credit, a Ronald Reagan era anti-poverty program that enables low-wage working families with children to meet their basic needs while promoting employment. In addition, the child tax credit gives families a tax credit through the form of a refund check even when they don’t owe federal income taxes.[2]

The other one-third of the 47 percent — those households that aren’t paying either major federal tax — includes those who are unemployed, low-income senior citizens who paid taxes during their working years and aren’t currently taxed on Social Security benefits, students, those who have disabilities or can’t work due to serious injury and people who don’t meet the income tax obligation because their wages aren’t high enough.

Often missed in the focus on those who are not currently paying income taxes is the errant assumption that all those people have never paid taxes and never will. Just because a household doesn’t owe income tax one year, doesn’t mean they won’t pay income taxes over their lifetime. For many, a career change, the loss of a job, a disability or injury, or low wages can lead to incomes too low to pay taxes.

Iowa households who aren’t paying federal income tax are still paying a large percentage of their incomes to state and local taxes. As the Iowa Policy Project reported in (2009), moderate-and low-income Iowans pay more of their income in state and local taxes than the rich do. [3] [4]

whopays2009As the graph at right shows, Iowa’s regressive tax system takes a larger share of the incomes from those who have the least, and a smaller share from those who have the ability to pay a larger percentage of their income. Make no mistake: Working Iowans pay taxes.

For more on this issue, see our two-pager, “Better understanding the 47 percent.”

Posted by Heather Gibney, Research Associate


Folly of the sales-tax holiday

August 1, 2011
Andrew Cannon photo

Andrew Cannon

The Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP) hits the nail on the head with a two-page policy brief about sales-tax holidays. Typically scheduled for back-to-school shopping and used in 17 states, they drain revenue, and feed unfairness in a state tax system.

In “Sales Tax Holidays: A Boondoggle,” ITEP notes sales tax holidays “are costly. Revenue lost through sales tax holidays will ultimately have to be made up somewhere else, either through painful spending cuts or increasing other taxes.”

Iowa’s tax holiday is Friday and Saturday of this week. The timing for the holiday couldn’t be worse, as it comes right before the start of the first school year in which state lawmakers have frozen school districts’ per-pupil spending. Giving up that revenue for a “back to school” sales gimmick is ridiculous.

ITEP identifies the problems with all such “holidays,” including the Iowa break:
— they do not target sales-tax relief to low-income families that are most affected by sales taxes, but offer it to the wealthiest families as well;
— they do nothing to stimulate local economies, because the purchases would be made anyway; and
— for the other 363 days of the year, they leave a state tax system unchanged in its favoritism toward the wealthy.

“Regrettably,” ITEP states, “these holidays may lull lawmakers into believing that they have resolved the unfairness of sales taxes.”

Finally, beyond these standard tax-policy concerns, the sales-tax holiday raises consumer protection issues. It actually provides an incentive to businesses to charge customers more than they would have without the break.

Think about it. The holiday saves Iowans 7 percent on a sale of a clothing item. How many stores promote a “7 Percent Off” sale? But a “no tax” sale — watch the ads this week. Why offer 15 percent off, or 20 percent off, or half off, or 2 for 1, when the state is handing you this promotion?

A “holiday” should be something to celebrate. Fixing problems with Iowa’s sales-tax law could be accomplished in better ways than a two-day boondoggle.

Posted by Andrew Cannon, Research Associate


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